Nobel Prizes in Physiology or Medicine

  (List, not checked)

 

1901
E. A. v. Behring (Germany)
1902
Sir R. Ross (United Kingdom)
1903
N. R. Finsen (Denmark)
1904
I. P. Pawlow (Russia)
1905
R. Koch (Germany)
1906
C. Golgi (Italy)
S. Ramón y Cajal (Spain)
1907
Ch. L. A. Laveran (France)
1908
P. Ehrlich (Germany)
I. Metschnikow (France, Russia)
1909
Th. Kocher (Switzerland)
1910
A. Kassel (Germany)
1911
A. Gullstrand (Sweden)
1912
A. Carrel (USA, France)
1913
Ch. Richet (France)
1914
R. Barány (Austria)
1915 -
1916 -
1917 -
1918 -
1919
J. Bordet (Belgium)
1920
A. Krogh (Denmark)
1921 -
1922
A. V. Hill (United Kingdom)
O. Meyerhof (Germany)
1923
F. G. Banting (Canada)
J. J. R. Macleod (Canada)
1924
W. Einthoven (Netherlands)
1925 -
1926
J. Fibiger (Denmark)
1927
J. Wagner-Jauregg (Austria)
1928
Ch. Nicolle (France)
1929
Chr. Eijkman (Netherlands)
Sir F.G. Hopkins (United Kingdom)
1930
K. Landsteiner (USA, Austria)
1931
O. H. Warburg (Germany)
1932
Ch. S. Sherrington (United Kingdom)
E.D. Adrian (United Kingdom)
1933
Th. H. Morgan (USA)
1934
G. R. Minot (USA)
W. P. Murphy (USA)
G.H. Whipple (USA)
1935
H. Spemann (Germany)
1936
Sir H.H. Dale (United Kingdom)
Otto Loewi (Austria, 1873-06-03 - 1961-12-25)
1937
A. Szent-Györgyi von Nagyrapolt (Hungary)
1938
C. Heymans (Belgium)
1939
G. Domagk (Germany)
1941 -
1942 -
1943
H. Dam (Denmark)
E. A. Doisy (USA)
1944
J. Erlanger (USA)
H.S. Gasser (USA)
1945
E. B. Chain (United Kingdom, Germany)
Sir A. Fleming (United Kingdom)
Sir H. W. Florey (United Kingdom)
1946
H. J. Muller(USA)
1947
Carl F. u. Gerty T. Cori (USA, Czechoslovakia)
B. Houssay (Argentina)
1948
P. Müller (Switzerland)
1949
W. R. Hess (Switzerland)
A. Egas Moniz (Portugal)
1950
Ph. S. Hench (USA)
E. C. Kendall (USA)
T. Reichstein (Switzerland)
1951
M. Theiler (USA, South Africa)
1952
S. A. Waksman (USA, Russia)
1953
H. A. Krebs (United Kingdom, Germany)
F.A. Lipmann (USA, Germany)
1954
J. F. Enders (USA)
F. C. Robbins (USA)
Th.H. Weller (USA)
1955
H.A.T. Theorell (Sweden)
1956
A.F. Cournand (USA, France)
W. Forssmann (Germany)
D.W. Richards (USA)
1957
D. Bovel (Italy, Switzerland)
1958
G.W. Beadle (USA)
J. Lederberg (USA)
E.L. Tatum (USA)
1959
A. Kornberg (USA)
S. Ochoa (USA, Spain)
1960
Sir P.M. Burnet (Australien)
P.B. Medawar (United Kingdom)
1961
G. v.Bekesy (USA, Hungary)
1962
Francis H. C. Crick (United Kingdom, 1916-06-08 - 2004-07-28)
James D. Watson (USA, *1928-04-26)
Maurice Wilkins (United Kingdom, 1916-12-15 - 2004-10-05)
for their discovery of the structure of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
1963
Sir J. C. Eccles (Australien)
A. L. Hodgkin (United Kingdom)
A. F. Huxley (United Kingdom)
1964
K. Bloch (USA, Germany)
Feodor Lynen (Germany)
1965
F. Jacob (France)
A. Lwoff (France)
J. Monod (France)
1966
C. B. Huggins (Canada)
F. P. Rous (USA)
1967
R. Granit (Sweden)
H. K. Hartline (USA)
G. Wald (USA)
1968
R. W. Holley (USA)
H. G. Khorana (USA)
M. W. Nirenberg (USA)
1969
M. Delbrück (USA, Germany)
A. Hershey (USA)
S. Luria (USA)
1970
B. Katz (United Kingdom)
U. S. v. Euler-Chelpin (Sweden)
J. Axelrod (USA)
1971
W. Sutherland (USA)
1972
G.M. Edelman (USA)
R. Porter (United Kingdom)
1973
K. v. Frisch (Austria)
K. Lorenz (Austria)
N. Tinbergen (Netherlands)
1974
A. Claude (Belgium)
Ch. de Duve (Belgium)
G.E. Palade (USA)
1975
D. Baltimore (USA)
R. Dulbecco (USA)
H. Temin (USA)
1976
B. Blumberg (USA)
D.C. Gajdusek (USA)
1977
R. Guillemin (USA)
A. Schally (USA)
R. Yalow (USA)
1978
W. Arber (Switzerland)
D. Nathans (USA)
H. Smith (USA)
1979
A. M. Cormack (USA)
G. N. Hounsfield (United Kingdom)
1980
B. Benacerraf (USA)
George Davis Snell (USA, 1903-12-19 - 1996-06-06)
J. Dausset (France)
1981
R. W. Sperry (USA)
D. H. Hubel (USA)
T. N. Wiesel (Sweden)
1982
S. K. Bergström (Sweden)
B. I. Samuelsson (Sweden)
J. R. Vane (United Kingdom)
1983
B. McClintock (USA)
1984
N. K. Jerne (Denmark)
G. F. K. Köhler (Germany)
C. Milstein (Argentina)
1985
M. F. Brown (USA)
J. L. Goldstein (USA)
1986
St. Cohen (USA)
R. Levi-Montalcini (Italy, USA)
1987
S. Tonegawa (Japan)
1988
Sir J. W. Black (United Kingdom)
Gertrude B. Elion (USA, +1999-02-21)
G.H. Hitchings (USA)
1989
Michael J. Bishop (USA)
Harold E. Varmus (USA)
1990
Joseph E. Murray (USA)
E. Donnall Thomas (USA)
1991
E. Neher (Germany)
B. Sakmann (Germany)
1992
Edmond H. Fischer (USA, *1920)
Edwin G. Krebs (USA, *1918)
Discovery of mechanisms for the regulation of proteins in the human body
1993
Richard J. Roberts (USA, *1943)
Phillip A. Sharp (USA, *1944)
(Mosaic genes)
1994
Alfred G. Gillman (USA, *1941-07-01)
Martin Rodbell (USA, *1925-12-01)
Signal transfer within cells, discovery of G proteins
1995
Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard (Germany, *1942-10-20)
Eric F. Wieschaus (USA, *1947-06-07)
Edward B. Lewis (USA, *1918-05-20)
for their discoveries concerning the genetic control of early embryonic development (studies of Drosophila melanogaster, cf. Nature 287, 795 (1980))
1996
Peter C. Doherty (Australia, *1940-10-15)
Rolf M. Zinkernagel (Switzerland, *1944-01-06)
for their discoveries concerning the specificity of the cell mediated immune defence (T lymphocytes)
1997
Stanley B. Prusiner (USA, *1942-05-28)
for his discovery of Prions - a new biological principle of infection
1998
Robert F. Furchgott (USA, *1916-06-04)
Louis J. Ignarro (USA, *1941-05-31)
Ferid Murad (USA, *1936-09-14)
for their discoveries concerning nitric oxide as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system
1999
Günter Blobel (USA, Germany, *1936-05-21)
for the discovery that proteins have intrinsic signals that govern their transport and localization in the cell
2000
Arvid Carlsson (Sweden, *1923-01-25)
Paul Greengard (USA, *1925-12-11)
Eric Kandel (Austria/USA, *1929-11-07)
for their discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system
2001
Leland H. Hartwell (USA, *1939)
R. Timothy (Tim) Hunt (United Kingdom, *1943)
Sir Paul M. Nurse (United Kingdom, *1949)
for their discoveries of key regulators of the cell cycle
2002
Sydney Brenner (United Kingdom, *1927)
H. Robert Horvitz (USA, *1947)
John E. Sulston (United Kingdom, *1942)
for their discoveries concerning genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death
2003
Paul C. Lauterbur (USA, *1929)
Sir Peter Mansfield (United Kingdom, *1933)
for their discoveries concerning magnetic resonance imaging
2004
Richard Axel (USA, *1946)
Linda B. Buck (USA, *1947)
for their discoveries of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system
2005
Barry J. Marshall (Australia, *1951)
J. Robin Warren (Australia, *1937)
for their discovery of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori and its role in gastritis and peptic ulcer disease
2006
Andrew Z. Fire (USA, *1959)
Craig C. Mello (USA, *1960)
for their discovery of RNA interference - gene silencing by double-stranded RNA
2007
Mario R. Capecchi (USA, *1937 in Italy)
Sir Martin J. Evans (United Kingdom, *1941)
Oliver Smithies (USA, *1925 in UK)
for their discoveries of principles for introducing specific gene modifications in mice by the use of embryonic stem cells (knockout mice)
2008
Harald zur Hausen (Germany, *1936)
for his discovery of human papilloma viruses causing cervical cancer
Françoise Barré-Sinoussi (France, *1947)
Luc Montagnier (France, *1932)
for their discovery of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
2009
Elizabeth H. Blackburn (Australia/USA, *1948)
Carol W. Greider (USA, *1961)
Jack W. Szostak (USA, *1952 in UK)
for their discovery of how chromosomes are protected by telomeres and the enzyme telomerase
2010
Robert G. Edwards (United Kingdom, 1925-09-27 - 2013-04-10)
for the development of in vitro fertilization
2011
Bruce A. Beutler (USA, *1957)
Jules A. Hoffmann (Luxembourg, France, *1941)
for their discoveries concerning the activation of innate immunity
Ralph M. Steinman (Canada, USA, 1943 - 2011-09-30)
for his discovery of the dendritic cell and its role in adaptive immunity
2012
Sir John B. Gurdon (United Kingdom, *1933)
Shinya Yamanaka (Japan, USA, *1962)
for the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent
2013
James E. Rothman (USA, *1950)
Randy W. Schekman (USA, *1948)
Thomas C. Südhof (Germany, USA, *1955)
for their discoveries of machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells
2014
John O'Keefe (1/2; USA, United Kingdom, *1939)
May-Britt Moser (1/4; Norway, *1963)
Edvard I. Moser (1/4; Norway, *1962)
for their discoveries of cells that constitute a positioning system in the brain
2015
William C. Campbell (1/4; Ireland, USA, *1930)
Satoshi Omura (1/4; Japan, *1935)
for their discoveries concerning a novel therapy against infections caused by roundworm parasites (Avermectin against River Blindness, Lymphatic Filariasis and other parasitic diseases)
Youyou Tu (1/2; China, *1930)
for her discoveries concerning a novel therapy against malaria (Artemisinin, discovered by traditional Chinese medicine (TCM))
2016
Yoshinori Ohsumi (Japan, *1945)
for his discoveries of mechanisms for autophagy
2017
Jeffrey C. Hall (USA, *1945)
Michael Rosbash (USA, *1944)
Michael W. Young (USA, *1949)
for their discoveries of molecular mechanisms controlling the circadian rhythm

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Burkhard Kirste, 1995-10-14, 2017-11-01